At first blush, it appears that people slaughtered sheep, being smaller than cattle or pigs, to cook and eat them in their entirety for feasts, or perhaps in times of famine. A closer look at the literature reveals that people also borrowed many of the methods used for preserving pork to mutton, including something called Macon, which took the place of bacon in Britain during the Second World War.*
Many other ways for preserving mutton stem from the British Isles. Dry curing was one way, in much the same manner as pork hams. The well-known cookbook author, Hannah Glasse (1708-1770), provided detailed instructions for dry-curing mutton hams, placing the meat in a dry cure with salt and sugar for three weeks, then cold-smoking it over oak and juniper, followed by a maturation period of eight months, a practice stemming from Cumbria in the northwest of England. According to Jennifer Stead, this practice apparently dated from Elizabethan times or earlier.
Drying lamb flesh, observed in the Faroe Islands by G. Landt in 1810 (A Description of the Feroe Islands), entailed splitting lambs in half and spreading them out, “butterflying” them if you will, and leaving them to hang in the cold dry air for several months. Mutton could undergo the same treatment, but took much longer to dry properly. A similar product was reestit mutton, hung on rafters (reestit) in croft houses with open peat fire in the Shetland Islands.
Another technique, quite ancient, was potting. Peter Brears devoted a whole chapter to this topic in “Pots for Potting.” Interestingly enough, the process of boiling or frying meat to rend out fat and then packing the meat into a pot, covering the meat with the rendered fat, is one practiced in Lebanon, France, and England. Brears quotes the Bedford Mss. 432/4, p. 39 – 40, from Leeds University’s Brotherton Library, where a Mr. Wood of Slaidburn says that all mutton except legs was treated in pots, topped with melted butter, even until the early twentieth century. Many Lebanese still consider Qawrama, or spiced mutton preserved in fat a jar, a real treat. And what would France’s signature cassoulet be without duck confit, duck legs preserved in the same manner?
Rarely do we find accounts of the experiments that people no doubt conducted as they searched for procedures for best preserving their food, for hoarding the excesses of their harvests and hunts. The following newspaper articles summarize the early attempts of Australians to ship fresh sheep meat to England. A Professor Gamgee suggested the following method:
The animal is made to inhale carbonic oxide gas, and when it has become insensible is bled to death in the usual way. The carcass is dressed, and then suspended in an air-tight chamber; the air is exhausted, and the receiver is filled with the gas before mentioned. After remaining exposed to the vapour for from twenty-four to forty-eight hours it is removed and hung in a dry atmosphere; that is all.
From: The McIvor Times and Rodney Advertiser, Friday 17 July, 1868
It sounded plausible to a number of businessmen and so they tried it, with quite unsatisfactory results:
A NUMBER of gentlemen interested in meat-preserving assembled at the custom-house, Melbourne, on the 30th June, for the purpose of inspecting a parcel of meat consigned to Messrs. McCulloch, Sellar, and Co., by the ship “Crusader,” and preserved by Professor Gamgee’s process. The Telegraph reports that the meat, which consisted of mutton and pork, had been placed in wooden cases, barrels, and some in a vessel made of boiler plates with a hermetically-fitting lid. Portions of the preserved-meat were packed in tallow, some in oat husks, and the remaining joints were sewn in canvas, and also packed in oat husks. On opening the wooden case the tallow was found to be mildewed and emitted a decidedly unpleasant odour. The meat, as well as that in the barrels and iron vessel, was either tainted or quite bad. Of the two the pork was in the better condition; but it, as well as the mutton, was quite unfitted for human consumption. The trial cannot be regarded other than unfavourable.
From: Rockhampton Bulletin and Central Queensland Advertiser, Monday, 18 July, 1870, p. 3)
As I consider these methods of preservation, I cannot help but think of the joy that people must have felt, the sense of relief that food sat in pantries and root cellars, ready for the lean days and months to come. And then I consider what a disaster it would be to have food go bad, what difficulty another attempt would mean, with the potential waste of food that that entailed.
* So just what is mutton? Darina Allen offers the following definitions:
Suckling: milk-fed lamb available only in the spring
Spring lamb: born before Christmas and ready for cooking by Easter
Lamb: between Easter and the following Christmas
Hogget: lamb that survives through its second Christmas (about 1 year old or more)
Mutton: more than two years old [Note: Also known as “wether”]
For further contemplation:
Allen, Darina. Forgotten Skills of Cooking: The Time-Honored Ways are the Best (Kyle Books, 2009)
Brears, Peter. Cooking & Dining in Medieval England (Prospect Books, 2008)
_____. “Pots for Potting.” In: C. Anne Wilson, ed. ‘Waste Not, Want Not’: Food Preservation from Early Times to the Present Day (Edinburgh University Press, 1991, p. 32 – 65)
Fischer, David Hackett, “Albion and the Critics: Further Evidence and Reflection.” The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, Vol. 48, No. 2 (Apr., 1991), pp. 260-308.
_____. Albion’s Seed: Four British Folkways in America (Oxford University Press, 1989)
Hilliard, Sam Bowers. Hog Meat and Hoe Cake (Southern Illinois University Press, 1972)
Stead, Jennifer, “Necessities and Luxuries: Food preservation from the Elizabethan to Georgian Times.” In: C. Anne Wilson, ed. ‘Waste Not, Want Not’: Food Preservation from Early Times to the Present Day (Edinburgh University Press, 1991, p. 66 – 103)
Wilson, C. Anne. “Preserving Food to Preserve Life.” In: C. Anne Wilson, ed. ‘Waste Not, Want Not’: Food Preservation from Early Times to the Present Day (Edinburgh University Press, 1991, p. 5 – 31)
© 2013 C. Bertelsen